Australopithecus africanus

Date range:
3 to 2.3 million years ago

Southern Africa

Higher, rounder braincase than Australopithecus afarensis; limbs possibly less adapted for bipedalism

Although it appears later, Australopithecus africanus appears to have longer arms and shorter legs than Australopithecus afarensis. These proportions could represent a reversal to a more primitive state. Or africanus could be from a line of hominids only distantly related to afarensis.

Photograph at left and top by Kenneth Garrett