Volcanoes are manifestations of the fiery power contained deep within the Earth. These formations are essentially vents on the Earth's surface where molten rock, debris, and gases from the planet's interior are emitted.
Indonesia is on high alert after unprecedented seismic activity at Bali's Moung Agung. Although experts are unsure exactly when, it is clear that eruption is imminent. More than a thousand lost their lives the last time Mount Agung erupted in February of 1963. Over 100,000 have already evacuated the exclusion zone.
In the South Pacific, Vanatu reached a level four shortly before the eruption of Ambae's Manaro Voui volcano in early October, leaving many without safe water. Mount Shinmoedake, in Japan, has erupted this month for the first time in six years, spreading ash on nearby towns.
How Volcanoes Are Made
When thick magma and large amounts of gas build up under the surface, eruptions can be explosive, expelling lava, rocks and ash into the air. Less gas and more viscous magma usually mean a less dramatic eruption, often causing streams of lava to ooze from the vent.
The mountain-like mounds that we associate with volcanoes are what remain after the material spewed during eruptions has collected and hardened around the vent. This can happen over a period of weeks or many millions of years.
A large eruption can be dangerous for people living near a volcano. Flows of searing lava, which can reach 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit (1,250 degrees Celsius) or more, can be released, burning everything in their path. Boulders of hardening lava can rain down on villages. Mud flows from rapidly melting snow can strip mountains and valleys bare and bury towns.
Ash and toxic gases can cause lung damage and other problems, particularly for infants and the elderly. Scientists estimate that more than 260,000 people have died in the past 300 years from volcanic eruptions and their aftermath.
Where Are Earth's Volcanoes?
Volcanoes tend to exist along the edges between tectonic plates, massive rock slabs that make up Earth's surface. About 90 percent of all volcanoes exist within the Ring of Fire along the edges of the Pacific Ocean.
About 1,900 volcanoes on Earth are considered active, meaning they show some level of activity and are likely to explode again. Many other volcanoes are dormant, showing no current signs of exploding but likely to become active at some point in the future. Others are considered extinct.