Photo: Paul A. Baker

Paul A. Baker, Geology
Base of Operations: Durham, North Carolina
Education: B.A. University of Rochester; M.S. Pennsylvania State University; Ph.D. Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Paul Baker is a professor of geochemistry at Duke University.

Baker has undertaken field geological studies on all of the continents (except Australia, a big exception!), has participated in four DSDP/ODP ocean drilling cruises, and many other oceanographic and limnologic expeditions. He has helped advise and nurture many excellent students and is very proud of their accomplishments.

Dr. Baker's present research focuses on reconstructing past climates and understanding the mechanisms that control climate variability, with a particular emphasis on tropical South America. This research has involved scientific drilling projects in Lake Titicaca and the Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia, studies of growth rates and isotopic composition of Amazonian tree species, and marine geology of the Brazilian continental margin offshore of the mouth of the Amazon. This aspect of Baker's research is motivated by his interest in determining how the physical environment has shaped the present-day distribution of biodiversity in the Amazon and tropical Andes. In many of these studies, Dr. Baker has worked alongside biologists and anthropologists.

One of Baker's new lines of research is in sustainable agriculture, asking what is the influence of natural climate variability on productivity, particularly in marginal, semi-arid regions? And how will future climate change affect regional water balance and productivity?

Photo: Kamaljit S. Bawa

Kamaljit S. Bawa, Conservation
Base of operations: Boston, MA
Education: B.S., Punjab University; B.S.(Honors), Punjab University;
M.S.(Honors), Punjab University; Ph. D., Punjab University

Professor Kamaljit S. Bawa is a Distinguished Professor of Biology at the University of Massachusetts at Boston. His work explores the role of institutions and market-based approaches in conservation. He is specifically interested in the relationships among poverty, institutions and community-based conservation. Professor Bawa has been a Guggenheim Fellow as well as a Pew Scholar in Conservation and the Environment. He has published more than 200 papers, and edited 10 books, monographs or special issues of journals. He is the editor-in-chief of Conservation and Society, an interdisciplinary journal in conservation, and also serves on the editorial boards of several other journals. He has served on many national and international advisory panels . He has been the President of the Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation, and a member of the governing board of several foundations and non government organizations.

He is the Founder-President of the Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), a non-governmental organization devoted to research, policy analysis, and education in India. He is a recipient of the highest awards from the two main professional societies in his field. In 2003, the Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation bestowed on him its highest honor by electing him as an Honorary Fellow. The Society for Conservation Biology awarded him its Distinguished Service Award in 2009. In 2012, he received the world's first prize in sustainability science, the Gunnerus Award from the Royal Norwegian Society of Science and Letters, and In 2014, he was awarded the International MIDORI Prize in  biodiversity.

Photo: Colin Chapman

Colin Chapman, Primatology
Base of Operations: McGill University, Montreal, Quebec
Education: B.Sc. (Hons) University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta; MA University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta; Ph.D. University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta; Post-doc McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Post-doc Harvard University, Boston

Colin Chapman joined the Committee for Research and Exploration in 2008. Dr. Chapman is a professor in the Department of Anthropology and McGill School of Environment, and an adjunct professor in Biology at McGill University, an Honourary Professor of Zoology at Makerere University, Uganda, and an Associate Scientist with the Wildlife Conservation Society. Since 2005 he has been a Canada Research Chair in Primate Ecology and Conservation and has spearheaded a number of conservation projects, primarily in Uganda.

For the last 19 years, Dr. Chapman has conducted research in Kibale National Park, Uganda. In general, his research focuses on how the environment influences primate abundance and social organization, and in turn how primates affect their environment through seed dispersal and herbivory. Until now, few studies have moved beyond providing obvious solutions to conservation problems, such as stopping deforestation. Dr. Chapman applies his research to find novel solutions to the conservation of primates. Much of his past research has involved developing and testing models of the determinants of primate abundance, and predicting how primates will respond to human disturbance. Continuing his research on the endangered red colobus monkey in Kibale, Dr. Chapman is trying to determine how nutrition and parasitism operate synergistically to influence primate population size. In addition, he is investigating the widespread hypothesis that changes wrought by human intervention bring non-human primates into closer contact with each other and with humans, and that this in turn enhances the transmission of diseases between species and the emergence of novel diseases.

Photo: Janet Franklin

Janet Franklin
Base of Operations: Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona
Education: B.A., M.A., and Ph.D., University of California, Santa Barbara

Janet Franklin is a professor in the Department of Geographical Science and Urban Planning at Arizona State University and is a distinguished sustainability scientist in ASU’s Global Institute of Sustainability. She is a biogeographer and landscape ecologist who uses geospatial data and spatial analytical tools to study past, present, and future distributions of biodiversity in relation to the physical environment, ecological processes, and human impacts. Her work has provided insights about synergistic impacts of global change factors on biodiversity. Land-use change, altered disturbance regimes, climate change, and invasive species operate at the scale of landscapes and regions, leading to ecosystem change, habitat loss, and species decline. Only by considering these factors together can it be determined which factors may amplify effects of others (for example, urban growth and climate change) and where.

Franklin has studied the patterns and dynamics of terrestrial plant communities—important elements of regional biodiversity providing essential habitat for individual species—in California, the American Southwest, West Africa, South Africa, the Pacific Islands, and the Caribbean.

Franklin came to ASU in 2009 after two decades on the faculty at San Diego State University. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences.

Photo: Carol Harden

Carol Harden
Base of operations: Tennessee
Education: B.A., Middlebury College; M.A. and Ph.D., University of Colorado, Boulder

Called "the lady who brings the rain" for her use of portable rainfall simulators in studies of soil erosion and rainfall runoff in the Ecuadorian Andes, Carol Harden is a geographer whose field-based research links changes in land use and land management to the redistribution of water and sediment in inhabited mountain watersheds. Her current research relates land-use and land-management changes to the ecosystem services that regulate the storage of carbon and water in high Andean grassland soils. She also leads related research on watershed processes in the southern Appalachians, recently focusing on streambank erosion and water quality in mountain streams.

Harden is professor of Geography at the University of Tennessee and former head of the department. She is vice-president (2008–2009) of the Association of American Geographers, a member of the Geographical Sciences Committee of the National Academies of Science, and Co-Editor-in-Chief of the journal Physical Geography. Her international research has been funded by numerous sources, including a Research and Exploration grant and a Fulbright Fellowship. Before joining the academic world, she participated in three research expeditions to Mt. Logan (Canada), sponsored by the Arctic Institute of North America, and worked in instructional, supervisory, and administrative capacities in two Outward Bound schools.

Photo: Carol Harden

Kirk Johnson
Base of Operations: Washington, D. C.
Education: B. A. Amherst College; M. S. University of Pennsylvania; Ph. D. Yale University

Kirk Johnson is the Sant Director of the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History. He is a paleontologist who spent much of his career (1991-2012) at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science where he led expeditions that resulted in the discovery of more than 1,400 fossil sites on all continents with particular focus on the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene geology and fossils of the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains in North America and Argentine Patagonia in South America. His research focuses on fossil plants, the extinction of the dinosaurs, and methods for dating rocks and fossils. He is known for his scientific books and articles, popular books, museum exhibits, collaborations with artists, and his accessible public speaking style. Much of this public-facing work has been aimed at the presentation of the full scope of the evolution of life on earth. He advocates that natural history museums are increasingly important tools for scientific discovery, preservation of treasured and relevant objects and data, and public inspiration and communication about science and culture. In 2010-11, he led the Snowmastodon Project, the excavation of an amazing ice age site discovered by construction workers in Snowmass Village on October 14, 2010. This dig was featured in the Nova documentary, Ice Age Death Trap , and in the book, Digging Snowmastodon, Discovering an Ice Age World in the Colorado Rockies .

Photo: Jonathan B. Losos

Jonathan B. Losos, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Base of Operations: Cambridge, MA
Education: A.B., Harvard University Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley

Jonathan Losos is a professor in the Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University and Curator of Herpetology at the Museum of Comparative Zoology.

The focus of Dr. Losos’s research is biological diversity, how it originates evolutionarily and how it is maintained in ecological communities. Answering these questions requires synthesis of ecological, behavioral, functional, and evolutionary data, requiring work both in the laboratory and the field. The organisms of choice in these studies are lizards, and Dr. Losos’s research has taken him throughout the world, conducting studies in the Caribbean, Central and South America, Africa, Madagascar, and Australia.

Dr. Losos is the former editor of the American Naturalist, a leading interdisciplinary journal in the fields of ecology and evolutionary biology, and has authored or edited two books, two textbooks and more than 100 scientific papers. He is the recipient of the Theodosius Dobzhansky Prize, the David Starr Jordan Prize, and a John Simon Guggenheim Fellowship.

Photo: John O’Loughlin

John O’Loughlin
Base of Operations: University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado
Education: BA (Hons) University College, Dublin, Ireland: M.S., PhD.
State University

John O’Loughlin is College Professor of Distinction in Geography at the University of Colorado at Boulder and also a Faculty Research Associate in its Institute of Behavioral Science. Previously he taught at the University of Illinois of Illinois- Urbana and was a visiting professor on two occasions at Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Germany.

Dr. O’Loughlin is a political geographer whose regional focus is the former Communist countries of the Soviet Union and the Balkans. Since the early 1990s, he has conducted fieldwork, with continuous funding from the National Science Foundation, in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Russia, Moldova, Ukraine, and the North and South Caucasus. The focus of the work is the extent and scope of nationalist mobilizations, the state of ethnic relations, the aftermath of conflicts, and the nature of state-building in newly-independent countries. The research involves both intensive interviewing and large-scale public opinion polls with foreign and U.S. colleagues and students.

In addition to his work on the former Communist states, Dr. O’Loughlin’s other specialties in political geography center on the local dynamics of conflict, the possible effects of climate and environmental change on local violence in sub- Saharan Africa, the diffusion of democracy, and electoral geography especially in Nazi Germany.

Dr. O’Loughlin is Editor-in-Chief of Political Geography and co-editor of Eurasian Geography and Economics. He is the recipient of fellowships from the John Simon Guggenheim Foundation, Rockefeller Foundation, and Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung, among other awards. He has published more than 150 research papers and books.

Photo: Naomi Pierce

Naomi Pierce, Biology
Base of Operations: Cambridge, Massachusetts
Education: BS, Yale University; Ph.D., Harvard University

Naomi Pierce is the Hessel Professor of Biology in the Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University, and Curator of Lepidoptera in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. She is known for her research on the ecology and evolution of species interactions, particularly mutualisms. This has ranged from field studies measuring the costs and benefits of symbioses between ants and other organisms, to genetic analyses of biochemical signaling pathways underlying interactions between plants, pathogens and insects. She has also been involved in reconstructing the evolutionary 'Tree of life' of insects such as ants, bees, and butterflies, and in using these trees to analyze life history evolution and biogeographical distributions.

Pierce came to Harvard in 1990 after appointments as a Research Lecturer in Christ Church and the Department of Zoology, Oxford University, and Assistant and Associate Professor, Princeton University. She has received prizes such as a Fulbright Fellowship to study in Australia and a MacArthur award, and is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a Senior Fellow of the Harvard Society of Fellows. The author of numerous scientific papers and an edited book, she lives in Cambridge with her husband and their two daughters.

Photo: Stephen R. Palumbi

Stephen R. Palumbi, Marine Biology
Base of Operations: Stanford University
Jane and Marshall Steel Jr. Professor of Marine Sciences Harold A. Miller Director of the Hopkins Marine Station

Steve Palumbi is a professor of biology based at Stanford’s marine lab in Monterey. He has used genetic detective work to identify whale parts found for sale in retail markets and is genetically mapping corals resistant to climate change. Palumbi’s latest book for nonscientists is about the amazing species in the sea and was written with his son, novelist Anthony Palumbi. The Extreme Life of the Sea profiles the fastest species in the sea, as well as the hottest, coldest, oldest, and so on. Steve started the video production company Short Attention Span Science Theatre and appears in many films and TV series about the sea. Lately, he’s been sitting in as bass player for Seattle rock band Direct Divide when they can’t find anyone without gray hair.

Photo: Peter H. Raven

Peter H. Raven, Botany
Base of Operations: St. Louis, Missouri
Education: B.S., University of California, Berkeley; Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles

Chair of the Committee for Research and Exploration, Peter H. Raven is one of the world's leading botanists and advocates of conservation and biodiversity. For three decades, he has headed the Missouri Botanical Garden, an institution he nurtured into a world-class center for botanical research and education, and horticultural display.

Described by Time magazine as a "Hero for the Planet," Raven champions research around the world to preserve endangered plants and is a leading advocate for conservation and a sustainable environment.

In recognition of his work in science and conservation, Raven is the recipient of numerous prizes and awards, including the prestigious International Prize for Biology from the government of Japan and the U.S. National Medal of Science, the country's highest award for scientific accomplishment. He has held Guggenheim and John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation fellowships.

Raven was a member of President Bill Clinton's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology. He also served for 12 years as home secretary of the National Academy of Sciences and is a member of the academies of science in Argentina, Brazil, China, Denmark, India, Italy, Mexico, Russia, Sweden, the U.K., and several other countries.

The author of numerous books and reports, both popular and scientific, Raven co-wrote Biology of Plants, an internationally best-selling textbook, now in its sixth edition. He also co-authored Environment, a leading textbook on the environment.

Photo: Jeremy Arac Sabloff

Jeremy Arac Sabloff, Archaeology
Base of Operations: Sante Fe, New Mexico
Education: B.A., University of Pennsylvania, 1964; Ph.D., Harvard University, 1969

Before coming to the Santa Fe Institute, he taught at Harvard University, the University of Utah, the University of New Mexico (where he was Chair of the Department), the University of Pittsburgh (where he also was Chair), and the University of Pennsylvania (where he was the Williams Director of the University of Pennsylvania Museum from 1994-2004 [and Interim Director, 2006-2007] and Christopher H. Browne Distinguished Professor of Anthropology). He also was an Overseas Visiting Fellow at St. John's College, Cambridge, England. He is a past President of the Society for American Archaeology, a past Chair of Section H (Anthropology) of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and past Editor of American Antiquity. He served as Chair of the Smithsonian Science Commission and currently is a member of the Visiting Committee for the Peabody Museum, Harvard University, the National Advisory Board of the National Museum of Natural History, and the Board of Trustees of the SRI Foundation.

He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (elected in 1994) and the American Philosophical Society (elected in 1996), and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (elected in 1999). Furthermore, he is a Fellow of both the Society of Antiquaries, London, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

He is the author of Excavations at Seibal; Ceramics (1975), The Cities of Ancient Mexico (1989; 2nd ed., 1997), The New Archaeology and the Ancient Maya (1990), and Archaeology Matters (2008) and the co-author of A History of American Archaeology (1974; 2nd ed., 1980; 3rd ed., 1993), A Reconnaissance of Cancuen, Peten, Guatemala (1978), Ancient Civilizations: The Near East and Mesoamerica (1979; 2nd ed. 1995), Cozumel: Late Maya Settlement Patterns (1984), and The Ancient Maya City of Sayil (1991). His books have appeared in Spanish, Russian, German, Japanese, and Dutch translations. He also has edited or co-edited 12 books, the most recent of which is (with Joyce Marcus) The Ancient City (2008); he has published more than 130 articles, book chapters, and reviews.

His principal scholarly interests include: ancient Maya civilization, pre-industrial urbanism, settlement pattern studies, archaeological theory and method, the history of archaeology, and the relevance of archaeology in the modern world. Over the past forty years, he has undertaken archaeological field research in both Mexico and Guatemala.

Photo: Monica Smith

Monica L. Smith
Base of Operations: Los Angeles
Education: B.A. University of California, Santa Barbara; M.A. UCLA; Ph.D. University of Michigan

Monica Smith is a professor in the Department of Anthropology at UCLA, after having started her research career with a visiting appointment at the University of Arizona and a faculty post at the University of Pittsburgh. She joined the Committee for Research and Exploration in 2012, with 20 years of experience in archaeological fieldwork in the Mediterranean, the American Southwest, and the Indian subcontinent.

Her research focuses on the comparative study of modern and ancient urbanism. The striking similarities of city life over the past 6,000 years suggest that humans’ capacity to live in crowded spaces was the result of long-term cognitive adaptations for multitasking, group integration, and investments in both portable objects and architecture as modes of social signaling.

Her current archaeological project focuses on the 2,000-year-old fortified city of Sisupalgarh, India, where she and her co-director Professor Rabindra Kumar Mohanty (Deccan College, Pune) have been investigating the continuity of urban life from the perspective of ordinary inhabitants. She also sustains long-term research interests in the anthropology of food, the development of social complexity, and trade and economics in prehistory.

Her books include A Prehistory of Ordinary People (2010), Excavations at Sisupalgarh, Orissa (with R.K. Mohanty, 2008), The Social Construction of Ancient Cities (editor, 2003), The Historic Period at Bandelier National Monument (2002), and The Archaeology of an Early Historic Town in Central India (2001). She also has published in a diverse range of journals in the U.S., Europe, and India.

Photo: Thomas B. Smith

Thomas B. Smith, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology/Conservation Biology
Base of Operations: University of California, Los Angeles
Education: B.Sc. University of Wisconsin, Madison; M.S. University of Wisconsin, Madison; Ph.D. University of California, Berkeley

Thomas Smith is founder and director of the Center for Tropical Research, Institute of the Environment, and is a professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at UCLA. He joined the Committee for Research and Exploration in 2009. Smith has more than 25 years of experience working in the rain forests of Africa, Australia, Latin America, and Hawaii. He oversees a host of research projects and directs the research of a large number of graduate students and postdoctoral researchers on projects based in tropical countries worldwide.

A central focus of his research investigates how biodiversity is generated and maintained in tropical rain forests. Combining molecular genetics and field biology, he identified a new theory of how speciation occurs in rain forests. In a series of recent studies, he has shown that for a wide range of taxa in rain forests worldwide, the processes of diversification and speciation take place not only within “biodiversity hotspots” but also along environmental gradients or ecotones representing the transition from one habitat to another. The results of Smith’s research point to new and more effective ways of prioritizing regions for conservation. In recent years his research has also focused on studying evolution in human-altered environments, the ecology of disease, and developing new approaches for mapping adaptive variation in species to mitigate the effects of climate change.

Smith is a frequent consultant for conservation organizations. Working with the World Bank and international conservation organizations, he has helped implement conservation programs and establish new national parks in tropical countries. His research has been featured around the world in print, on the radio, and in film. Over the years, his research has been supported by major research grants from the National Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and the National Institutes of Health.

He has received more than a dozen academic honors for his research, including being a fellow of the California Academy of Sciences, the American Ornithologists’ Union, and the Zoological Society of London, and he was a Senior Fulbright Research Scholar.

Photo: W. H. Wills

W. H. Wills, Anthropology
Base of Operations: University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico
Education: B.A. University of New Mexico, Ph.D., University of Michigan

Chip Wills is professor of anthropology and Regents’ Lecturer at the University of New Mexico and a research associate at the Smithsonian Institution. He has been a Wetherhead Fellow at the School of American Research, a postdoctoral fellow at the Smithsonian Institution, a visiting scholar at Cambridge University, and visiting professor at the University of Virginia.

Wills’s research involves the archaeological study of economic organization and social change in past societies, particularly in North America. He is especially interested in episodes of rapid development leading to complex social organizations that stem from interaction between relatively small social groups. His research focuses on the origins of agriculture, the emergence of village communities, and the formation of hierarchical corporate groups. Wills has addressed these issues primarily in the American Southwest, where he is currently directing field studies at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico.

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