Source Page for Gender Identity Map

Below are the sources for the map detailing where gender change is legal around the world.

This story appears in the January 2017 issue of National Geographic magazine.

The map about the legality of gender change appearing in the January 2017 issue of National Geographic shows information compiled by researcher Carla LaGata/Carsten Balzer of Transrespect versus Transphobia Worldwide (TvT), a comparative qualitative-quantitative research project initiated by Transgender Europe. Through a series of fact-checking interviews with legal experts and advocacy organizations around the globe, National Geographic subsequently amended and expanded this data set.

Countries and territories from original TvT data: Albania, American Samoa, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Bonaire, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Cambodia, China, Cook Islands, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechia (Czech Republic), Denmark, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, France, French Polynesia, Germany, Greece, Guam, Haiti, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, Kosovo, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Malta, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Niue, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania, Russia, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Singapore, Slovakia, South Korea, Spain, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Zambia

Countries and territories from additional fact-checking and reporting: Armenia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, French Guiana, Georgia, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malawi, Moldova, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Slovenia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, United States, Uruguay, Vietnam, Zimbabwe

Sources: Afsaneh Najmabadi, Harvard University; Anan Bouapha, Proud to Be Us–Laos; Anastasia Danilova, GENDERDOC-M Information Centre; Andrés Rivera Duarte, Organización de Transexuales por la Dignidad de la Diversidad; Andrew Park, UCLA; Anna Kirey and Yana Sitnikova, Trans* Coalition; Aram Hosie, cohealth; Audrey Mbugua, Transgender Education & Advocacy; Carla LaGata/Carsten Balzer and Lukas Berredo, Transgender Europe; Cianán Russell, Asia-Pacific Transgender Network; Daniela Esmeralda Vázquez, Almas Cautivas; Daniyar Orsekov, Kyrgyz Indigo; FtM Phoenix Group; Genwa Samhat, Helem; Hla Myat Tun, Colors Rainbow; Human Rights Commission of Sri Lanka; Jana Villayzan, Red Trans Perú; Kat Dearham, Jinsiangu; Katri Kivioja, UN Development Programme; Kim Mukasa, Refugee Law Project; Kristopher Wells, University of Alberta; Kyle Knight and Neela Ghoshal, Human Rights Watch; Legal Assistance Centre, Namibia; Michael van Gelderen, UN OHCHR; Mitch Yusmar Yusof, SEED; OutRight Action International; Rainbow Europe; Silvia Rosibel Martínez, Red Trans Nicaragua; Southern Africa Litigation Centre; Tamara Adrián, Central University of Venezuela; Tieneke Sumter, LGBT Platform Suriname; U.S. State Department; William Hernández, Entre Amigos

For more up-to-date and comprehensive information on the legal and social status of transgender and gender-diverse people in countries around the world, please visit TvT’s website, transrespect.org, or that of the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association, ilga.org; or contact your local LGBTQ advocacy organization.