BIRDS ON THE BRINK

Found on all seven continents, birds are a vital gauge

of ecosystem health. Yet many species have had it

rough since at least 1500, when recordkeeping

began. During the rise of global trade in the colonial

era, birds in the biodiverse tropics, for example, were

hard hit by habitat loss and the introduction of invasive

species—threats that persist oday. Nearly 200

species are gone forever, according to BirdLife

International, the official authority for birds on the

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

Red List of Threatened Species. Even more species

are critically endangered, many clinging to grim odds:

Fewer than 50 adults survive in the wild.

status as of october 2017

Critically endangered

144 species threatened by

agriculture

Cherry-throated tanager

Nemosia rourei

CURRENT POPULATION:

30-200

Espírito Santo, Brazil

35

19

34

Caribbean

Middle East &

central asia

Oceania

North & central

America

Europe

Africa

Asia

South

America

Antarctica

67 species threatened by

logging

Akohekohe

Palmeria dolei

CURRENT POPULATION:

3,800

Maui, Hawaii

19

9

27

Caribbean

Middle East &

central asia

Oceania

North & central

America

Europe

Africa

Asia

South

America

Antarctica

20 species threatened by

pollution

Northern bald ibis

Geronticus eremita

CURRENT POPULATION:

200-249

Morocco

8

Caribbean

Middle East &

central asia

Oceania

North & central

America

Europe

Africa

Asia

South

America

Antarctica

59 species threatened by

hunting & trapping

11

11

30

Caribbean

Middle East &

central asia

Oceania

North & central

America

Europe

Africa

Asia

South

America

Antarctica

22 species threatened by

residential & commercial

development

Spoon-billed sandpiper

Calidris pygmaea

CURRENT POPULATION:

240-400

northeastern Russia

and Southeast Asia

9

Caribbean

Middle East &

central asia

Oceania

Asia

South

America

North & central

America

Europe

Africa

Antarctica

68 species threatened by

invasive species

30

11

13

Caribbean

Middle East &

central asia

Oceania

Asia

South

America

Antarctica

North & central

America

Europe

Africa

35 species threatened by

climate change

8

8

13

Caribbean

Middle East &

central asia

Oceania

Asia

South

America

Antarctica

North & central

America

Europe

Africa

67 species threatened by

other

Hooded grebe

Podiceps gallardoi

CURRENT POPULATION:

660-800

Patagonia, Argentina

23

9

19

10

Caribbean

Middle East &

central asia

Oceania

Asia

South

America

Antarctica

North & central

America

Europe

Africa

documented since 1500

already extinct

33 species driven by

Agriculture

Slender-billed grackle

Quiscalus palustris

LAST SEEN:

1910, state of Mexico,

Mexico

20

Caribbean

Middle East &

central asia

Oceania

Asia

South

America

Antarctica

North & central

America

Europe

Africa

45 species driven by

logging

Kakawahie

Paroreomyza flammea

LAST SEEN:

1963, Molokai,

Hawaii

9

27

Caribbean

Middle East &

central asia

Oceania

Asia

North & central

America

South

America

Europe

Africa

Antarctica

2 species driven by

Pollution

Caribbean

Middle East &

central asia

Oceania

Asia

North & central

America

South

America

Europe

Africa

Antarctica

77 species Driven by

Hunting & TRapping

Passenger pigeon

Ectopistes migratorius

LAST SEEN: 1900, Ohio

8

34

25

Caribbean

Middle East &

central asia

Oceania

Asia

North & central

America

South

America

Europe

Africa

Antarctica

3 species driven by

residential & Commercial

development

Carolina parakeet

Conuropsis carolinensis

LAST SEEN: 1910, Florida

Caribbean

Middle East &

central asia

Oceania

Asia

North & central

America

South

America

Europe

Africa

Antarctica

122 species Driven by

invasive species

Least vermilion flycatcher

Pyrocephalus dubius

LAST SEEN: 1980, Galápagos

Islands, Ecuador

23

81

Caribbean

Middle East &

central asia

Oceania

Asia

North & central

America

South

America

Europe

Africa

Antarctica

11 species driven by

climate change

10

Caribbean

Middle East &

central asia

Oceania

Asia

North & central

America

South

America

Europe

Africa

Antarctica

28 species driven by

other

Canarian oystercatcher

Haematopus meadewaldoi

LAST SEEN:

1913, Canary Islands, Spain

18

Caribbean

Middle East &

central asia

Oceania

Asia

North & central

America

South

America

Europe

Africa

Antarctica

Alberto LUCAS López and Ryan T. Williams,

NGM Staff. Source: BIrdlife international

EXTINCT CATEGORY ALSO INCLUDES THOSE

SPECIES THAT ARE LIKELY EXTINCT AND THOSE THAT

ARE EXTINCT IN THE WILD.

BIRDS ON THE BRINK

Found on all seven continents, birds are a vital gauge of ecosystem health. Yet many species have had it

rough since at least 1500, when recordkeeping began. During the rise of global trade in the colonial era,

birds in the biodiverse tropics, for example, were hard hit by habitat loss and the introduction of invasive

species—threats that persist today. Nearly 200 species are gone forever, according to BirdLife

International, the official authority for birds on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

Red List of Threatened Species. Even more species are critically endangered, many

clinging to grim odds: Fewer than 50 adults survive in the wild.

1

10

25

Size indicates the number of species under threat or extinct. Some face multiple threats in multiple regions.

North &

central

America

Caribbean

South

America

Europe

Africa

Asia

Middle

East &

central asia

Oceania

Antarctica

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED

STATUS AS OF OCTOBER 2017

Cherry-throated tanager

Each illustrated bird (drawn

roughly to scale) is shown

over a threat or a driver of

its extinction.

Nemosia rourei

CURRENT POPULATION:

30-200, Espírito Santo,

Brazil

MAIN THREATS

144 BIRD SPECIES

agriculture

35

Akohekohe

Palmeria dolei

3,800, Maui,

Hawaii

67

LOGGING

27

Northern bald ibis

Geronticus eremita

200-249, Morocco

20

8

Pollution

59

HUNTING &

TRAPPING

9

Spoon-billed sandpiper

Calidris pygmaea

22

240-400, northeastern

Russia and Southeast Asia

residential &

Commercial

development

68

invasive

species

30

35

climate change &

Severe weather

13

Hooded grebe

Podiceps gallardoi

660-800, Patagonia,

Argentina

64

23

other

Alberto LUCAS López and Ryan T. Williams, NGM Staff. Source: BIrdlife international

EXTINCT CATEGORY ALSO INCLUDES THOSE SPECIES THAT ARE LIKELY EXTINCT AND THOSE THAT ARE EXTINCT IN THE WILD.

Found on all seven continents, birds are a vital gauge

of ecosystem health. Yet many species have had it

rough since at least 1500, when recordkeeping

began. During the rise of global trade in the colonial

era, birds in the biodiverse tropics, for example, were

hard hit by habitat loss and the introduction of invasive

species—threats that persist oday. Nearly 200

species are gone forever, according to BirdLife

International, the official authority for birds on the

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

Red List of Threatened Species. Even more species

are critically endangered, many clinging to grim odds:

Fewer than 50 adults survive in the wild.

33 species threatened by

agriculture

Slender-billed grackle

Quiscalus palustris

LAST SEEN:

1910, state of Mexico,

Mexico

20

Caribbean

Middle East &

central asia

Oceania

North & central

America

Europe

Africa

Asia

South

America

Antarctica

45 species threatened by

logging

Kakawahie

Paroreomyza flammea

LAST SEEN:

1963, Molokai,

Hawaii

9

27

Caribbean

Middle East &

central asia

Oceania

North & central

America

Europe

Africa

Asia

South

America

Antarctica

2 species threatened by

pollution

Caribbean

Middle East &

central asia

Oceania

North & central

America

Europe

Africa

Asia

South

America

Antarctica

77 species threatened by

hunting & trapping

Passenger

pigeon

8

34

25

Caribbean

Middle East &

central asia

Oceania

North & central

America

Europe

Africa

Asia

South

America

Antarctica

3 species threatened by

residential & commercial

development

Carolina parakeet

Conuropsis carolinensis

LAST SEEN: 1910, Florida

Caribbean

South

America

Asia

Middle East &

central asia

Oceania

North & central

America

Europe

Africa

Antarctica

122 species threatened by

invasive species

Least vermilion flycatcher

23

81

Caribbean

Middle East &

central asia

Oceania

Asia

North & central

America

South

America

Europe

Africa

Antarctica

11 species threatened by

climate change

10

Caribbean

Middle East &

central asia

Oceania

Asia

North & central

America

South

America

Europe

Africa

Antarctica

67 species threatened by

other

Canarian oystercatcher

Haematopus meadewaldoi

LAST SEEN:

1913, Canary Islands, Spain

18

Caribbean

Middle East &

central asia

Oceania

Asia

North & central

America

South

America

Europe

Africa

Antarctica

Alberto LUCAS López and Ryan T. Williams,

NGM Staff. Source: BIrdlife international

EXTINCT CATEGORY ALSO INCLUDES THOSE

SPECIES THAT ARE LIKELY EXTINCT AND THOSE THAT

ARE EXTINCT IN THE WILD.

BIRDS ON THE BRINK

Found on all seven continents, birds are a vital gauge of ecosystem health. Yet many species have had it

rough since at least 1500, when recordkeeping began. During the rise of global trade in the colonial era,

birds in the biodiverse tropics, for example, were hard hit by habitat loss and the introduction of invasive

species—threats that persist today. Nearly 200 species are gone forever, according to BirdLife

International, the official authority for birds on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

Red List of Threatened Species. Even more species are critically endangered, many

clinging to grim odds: Fewer than 50 adults survive in the wild.

1

10

25

Size indicates the number of species under threat or extinct.

North &

central

America

Caribbean

South

America

Europe

Africa

Asia

Middle

East &

central

asia

Oceania

Antarctica

ALREADY EXTINCT

DOCUMENTED SINCE 1500

Slender-billed grackle

Quiscalus palustris

MAIN DRIVERS

LAST SEEN:

1910, state of Mexico,

Mexico

33 BIRD SPECIES

20

agriculture

45

27

LOGGING

Kakawahie

Paroreomyza flammea

Passenger pigeon

Ectopistes migratorius

1963, Molokai, Hawaii

1900, Ohio

2

Pollution

77

HUNTING &

TRAPPING

34

Carolina parakeet

3

Conuropsis carolinensis

residential &

Commercial

development

1910, Florida

Least vermilion flycatcher

Pyrocephalus dubius

122

1980, Galápagos

Islands, Ecuador

invasive

species

81

11

climate change &

Severe weather

Canarian oystercatcher

Haematopus meadewaldoi

1913, Canary Islands, Spain

28

other

18

Alberto LUCAS López and Ryan T. Williams, NGM Staff. Source: BIrdlife international

EXTINCT CATEGORY ALSO INCLUDES THOSE SPECIES THAT ARE LIKELY EXTINCT AND THOSE THAT ARE EXTINCT IN THE WILD.

BIRDS ON THE BRINK

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED

ALREADY EXTINCT

STATUS AS OF OCTOBER 2017

DOCUMENTED SINCE 1500