Photograph by Joel Sartore, National Geographic Photo Ark
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A spotted salamander photographed at Zoo Atlanta in Georgia
Photograph by Joel Sartore, National Geographic Photo Ark

Spotted Salamander


About the Spotted Salamander

Despite being fairly large and having an extremely broad range, the spotted salamander is actually pretty hard to, well, spot.

Range and Habitat

They can reach 9 inches in length and are prevalent in mature deciduous forests from eastern Canada throughout the eastern and midwestern United States. But these secretive salamanders spend almost their entire lives hidden under rocks or logs or in the burrows of other forest animals.

They will populate upland forests and mountainous regions, but are most common in moist, low-lying forests near floodplains.

Reproduction

They emerge from their subterranean hiding spots only at night to feed and during spring mating. They will actually travel long distances over land after a heavy rain to mate and lay their eggs in vernal pools and ponds.

Coloring and Diet

Visually striking, these stout salamanders are bluish-black with two irregular rows of yellow or orange spots extending from head to tail. Like many other salamanders, they secrete a noxious, milky toxin from glands on their backs and tails to dissuade predators. Their diet includes insects, worms, slugs, spiders, and millipedes.

Population

Spotted salamanders' numbers are generally stable throughout their range, but they are very sensitive to changes in their ecology, and rising water acidity in certain habitats is negatively affecting their population. The pet trade and habitat loss also take a toll.