A black-tailed jackrabbit photographed at Cedar Point Biological Station in Ogallala, Nebraska
A black-tailed jackrabbit photographed at Cedar Point Biological Station in Ogallala, Nebraska
Photograph by Joel Sartore, National Geographic Photo Ark

Black-Tailed Jackrabbit

Common Name:
Black-Tailed Jackrabbit
Scientific Name:
Lepus californicus
Type:
Mammals
Diet:
Herbivore
Average Life Span In The Wild:
1 to 5 years
Size:
2 feet
Weight:
3 to 9 pounds
IUCN Red List Status:
Least concern
Current Population Trend:
Stable

Jackrabbits are actually hares, not rabbits. Hares are larger than rabbits, and they typically have taller hind legs and longer ears. Jackrabbits were named for their ears, which initially caused some people to refer to them as “jackass rabbits.” The writer Mark Twain brought this name to fame by using it in his book of western adventure, Roughing It. The name was later shortened to jackrabbit.

Jackrabbit Populations

Black-tailed jackrabbits are a common hare that inhabit American deserts, scrublands, and other open spaces, including farms. They can consume very large quantities of grasses and plants—including desert species such as sagebrush and cacti.

There are five other species of jackrabbits, all found in central and western North America. They are speedy animals capable of reaching 40 miles an hour, and their powerful hind legs can propel them on leaps of more than ten feet. They use these leaps and a zigzag running style to evade their many predators.

The jackrabbit's breeding prowess is well known. Females can give birth to several litters a year, each with one to six young. The young mature quickly and require little maternal care.

Booming jackrabbit populations can cause problems for farmers, especially in light of the animals' healthy appetite. Jackrabbits are often killed for crop protection, but in general their populations are stable and not in need of protection.

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