A hippopotamus photographed at San Antonio Zoo in Texas
A hippopotamus photographed at San Antonio Zoo in Texas
Photograph by Joel Sartore, National Geographic Photo Ark

Hippopotamus

Common Name:
Hippopotamus
Scientific Name:
Hippopotamus amphibious
Type:
Mammals
Diet:
Herbivore
Group Name:
School
Average Life Span In The Wild:
Up to 40 years
Size:
Head and body: 9.5 to 14 feet; tail: 13.75 to 19.75 inches
Weight:
1.5 to 4 tons
IUCN Red List Status:
Vulnerable
Current Population Trend:
Decreasing

Hippopotamuses love water, which is why the Greeks named them the “river horse.” Hippos spend up to 16 hours a day submerged in rivers and lakes to keep their massive bodies cool under the hot African sun. Hippos are graceful in water, good swimmers, and can hold their breath underwater for up to five minutes. However, they are often large enough to simply walk or stand on the lake floor, or lie in the shallows. Their eyes and nostrils are located high on their heads, which allows them to see and breathe while mostly submerged.

Hippos also bask on the shoreline and secrete an oily red substance, which gave rise to the myth that they sweat blood. The liquid is actually a skin moistener and sunblock that may also provide protection against germs.

Hippos on Land

At sunset, hippopotamuses leave the water and travel overland to graze. They may travel 6 miles in a night, along single-file pathways, to consume some 80 pounds of grass. Considering their enormous size, a hippo's food intake is relatively low. If threatened on land hippos may run for the water—they can match a human's speed for short distances.

Reproduction

Hippo calves weigh nearly 100 pounds at birth and can suckle on land or underwater by closing their ears and nostrils. Each female has only one calf every two years. Soon after birth, mother and young join schools that provide some protection against crocodiles, lions, and hyenas.

Hippos once had a broader distribution but now live in eastern central and southern sub-Saharan Africa, where their populations are in decline.

This photo was submitted to Your Shot, our photo community on Instagram. Follow us on Instagram at @natgeoyourshot or visit us at natgeo.com/yourshot for the latest submissions and news about the community.
This photo was submitted to Your Shot, our photo community on Instagram. Follow us on Instagram at @natgeoyourshot or visit us at natgeo.com/yourshot for the latest submissions and news about the community.
Photograph by Zachery David Elwart, National Geographic Your Shot

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