Illustration by Taylor Maggiacomo, National Geographic
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The giant ground pangolin is the largest species of pangolin alive today. It can grow more than four feet long and weigh 70 pounds.

Illustration by Taylor Maggiacomo, National Geographic

Giant Pangolin

As its name implies, the giant ground pangolin is the largest of the eight pangolin species, stretching more than four feet long. And like all pangolins, Smutsia gigantea is covered in protective scales over much of its body, making it look like a walking pinecone.

The giant pangolin prefers to be near water and live in moist habitats. It's native to the humid forests of West and central Africa, where it spends its days close to its burrow or partially covered in leaves or brush. It is solitary and comes out to feed only at night. It's a terrestrial species, unlike the white-bellied and black-bellied tree pangolins that also live in West and central Africa.


Pangolins don’t have many defenses; they don’t even have teeth. If a predator like a leopard or a python gets too close, the pangolin rolls into a tight ball. With its tail tucked, scales cover every part of its exposed body, making it a tough nut to crack. The animals also have a stinky, large anal glands to deter predators.

The scales also come in handy when the pangolin snacks on its favorite treat: ants. It takes its long front claws and uses them like a backhoe to pry up rocks and rip into ant colonies (and termite mounds, its other food source). Once it’s made an opening, the pangolin sticks its face in it and uses its very long tongue to slurp up the insects. When the ants swarm, the scales protect the pangolin from bites.

Other anti-ant features include a special valve in its nose that closes, no exterior ears, and thick eyelids.


Pangolins live alone except when it comes time to mate. Females typically bear a single offspring at a time and are doting single mothers. A baby pangolin will ride on its mother’s back, nursing and eating ants.


Elusiveness hasn’t protected giant pangolins from their main predator: humans. Like its pangolin cousins, Smutsia gigantea is hunted for its meat and scales. In fact, pangolins as a group are believed to be the most trafficked mammals in the world. Their scales are especially in demand for traditional Chinese medicine, though there is no scientific evidence they have any medicinal value. Giant pangolin scales, which are easily distinguishable from the scales of other species, are regularly found in overseas seizures of illegal shipments of scales. Giant pangolins also show up at bushmeat markets in range countries.

While scientists don't know how many giant pangolins there are, they're believed to be slightly better off than pangolins in Asia. But as pangolin trafficking shifts from Asia to Africa, their population trend has been downward, and the species is listed on the IUCN’s Red List as vulnerable.

Pangolins: The Most Trafficked Mammal You've Never Heard Of What are pangolins? If you’ve never heard of the pangolin, you’re not alone. This shy creature, as big as your cat or dog, is the world’s most trafficked mammal -- with more than one million pangolins poached in the past decade. Learn more about the pangolin, why all eight pangolin species are at risk of extinction, and the conservation efforts needed to save them.