Short-Horned Lizard

Common Name:
Short-Horned Lizard
Scientific Name:
Phrynosoma hernandesi
Type:
Reptiles
Diet:
Insectivore
Group Name:
Lounge
Size:
2.5 to 6 inches
IUCN Red List Status:
Least concern
Current Population Trend:
Stable

The short-horned lizard is often referred to as a “horned toad” or “horny toad” because its squat, flattened shape and short, blunt snout give it a toad-ish look. There are over a dozen recognized horned-lizard species found in the deserts and semi-arid environments of North and Central America, from southern Canada to Guatemala.

Characteristics and Diet

Species are distinguishable by the formidable crown of horns adorning their head and the numerous spines across their back. Their coloring can be yellowish, gray, or reddish-brown depending on the environment they inhabit, and, combined with their shape, affords them considerable camouflage on the surface. They feed primarily on ants, waiting for one to unsuspectingly crawl by before snapping it in and swallowing it whole. They are also known to eat grasshoppers, beetles, and spiders.

Defensive Adaptations

Despite their spiky features, short-horned lizards are preyed upon by a number of creatures, including hawks, roadrunners, snakes, lizards, dogs, wolves, and coyotes. Consequently, beyond their natural camouflage, they have adapted a pair of remarkable talents. In order to ward off hungry predators, short-horned lizards are capable of inflating their bodies up to twice their size, resembling a spiny balloon. And if this proves insufficient, some species employ one of the animal kingdom’s most bizarre defensive mechanisms: they shoot blood from their eyes.

The ominous squirting blood emanates from ducts in the corners of their eyes and can travel a distance of up to three feet. It’s meant to confuse would-be predators, but also contains a chemical that is noxious to dogs, wolves, and coyotes.

Threats to Survival

Over recent decades short-horn lizard populations have been in decline throughout their range. Destruction of their native habitat, efforts to eradicate ants—their staple food—and the pet trade have all contributed to this.

This photo was submitted to Your Shot, our photo community on Instagram. Follow us on Instagram at @natgeoyourshot or visit us at natgeo.com/yourshot for the latest submissions and news about the community.
This photo was submitted to Your Shot, our photo community on Instagram. Follow us on Instagram at @natgeoyourshot or visit us at natgeo.com/yourshot for the latest submissions and news about the community.
Photograph by Christopher Robinson, National Geographic Your Shot

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