World within a tumour–study shows how complex cancer can be

When I used to work at a cancer charity, I would often hear people asking why there isn’t a cure yet. This frustration is understandable. Despite the billions of dollars and pounds that go into cancer research, and the decades since a war on cancer was declared, the “cure” remains elusive.

There is a good reason for that: cancer is really, really hard.

It is a puzzle of staggering complexity. Every move towards a solution seems to reveal yet another layer of mystery.

For a start, cancer isn’t a single disease, so we can dispense with the idea of a single “cure”. There are over 200 different types, each with their own individual quirks. Even for a single type – say, breast

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