Photograph by Dorling Kindersley/Getty Images

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The Upper Waitaki Hydro Development Scheme at Lake Benmore on the South Island of New Zealand provides one third of New Zealand's hydro electricity.

Photograph by Dorling Kindersley/Getty Images



Harnessing the power of water is the cheapest form of energy, but environmental and other concerns cast doubts on its worth.


Hydropower is electricity generated using the energy of moving water. Rain or melted snow, usually originating in hills and mountains, create streams and rivers that eventually run to the ocean. The energy of that moving water can be substantial, as anyone who has been whitewater rafting knows.

Humans have been taking advantage of this source of energy for centuries. Farmers since the ancient Greeks have used water wheels to grind wheat into flour. Placed in a river, a water wheel picks up flowing water in buckets located around the wheel. The kinetic energy of the flowing river turns the wheel and is converted into mechanical energy that runs the mill.

In the late 19th century, hydropower became a source for generating electricity. The first hydroelectric power plant was built at Niagara Falls in 1879. In 1881, street lamps in the city of Niagara Falls were powered by hydropower. In 1882, the world’s first hydroelectric power plant began operating in the United States in Appleton, Wisconsin.

How it Works

A typical hydro plant is a system with three parts: an electric plant where the electricity is produced, a dam that can be opened or closed to control water flow, and a reservoir where water can be stored. The water behind the dam flows through an intake and pushes against blades in a turbine, causing them to turn. The turbine spins a generator to produce electricity. The amount of electricity that can be generated depends on how far the water drops and how much water moves through the system. The electricity can be transported through long-distance electric lines to homes, factories, and businesses.

Where It's Used

Hydroelectric power provides almost one-fifth of the world's electricity. China, Canada, Brazil, the United States, and Russia were the five largest producers of hydropower in 2004. One of the world's largest hydro plants is at Three Gorges on China's Yangtze River. The dam is 1.4 miles (2.3 kilometers) wide and 607 feet (185 meters) high.

The biggest hydro plant in the United States is located at the Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River in northern Washington. More than 70 percent of the electricity made in Washington State is produced by hydroelectric facilities.


Hydropower is the cheapest way to generate electricity today. That's because once a dam has been built and the equipment installed, the energy source—flowing water—is free. It's a clean fuel source that is renewable yearly by snow and rainfall. Hydropower is also readily available; engineers can control the flow of water through the turbines to produce electricity on demand. In addition, reservoirs may offer recreational opportunities, such as swimming and boating.

But damming rivers may destroy or disrupt wildlife and other natural resources. Some fish, like salmon, may be prevented from swimming upstream to spawn. Technologies like fish ladders help salmon go up over dams and enter upstream spawning areas, but the presence of hydroelectric dams changes their migration patterns and hurts fish populations. Hydropower plants can also cause low dissolved oxygen levels in the water, which is harmful to river habitats.

Some researchers believe the strain dams impose on the environment make this method of energy production more trouble than it's worth. A study in the journal BioSciences found that the reservoirs created by dams pollute methane, a greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere as a result of the breakdown of organisms in now stagnant pools of water.

In addition to environmental concerns, dams also pose a strain on the communities around them. The Three Gorges dam on China's Yangtze River displaced an estimated 1.3 million people and flooded thousands of villages.