Across Latin America, the Day of the Dead was eerily silent

Millions of mourners adapted as time-honored traditions were canceled due to fears of sparking a virus outbreak.

Photograph by César Rodríguez, National Geographic
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A young boy with a bouquet of marigolds waits for his mother outside a bakery as she buys offerings for Día de los Muertos, or the Day of the Dead, in San Andres Mixquic, Mexico. The yellow flower is strung over headstones and laid on altars, thought to represent the brightness of the sun illuminating a path for the spirits to return to Earth from Mictlán, the underworld. This year, the usually festive traditions around Dia de los Muertos were largely celebrated in private.

Photograph by César Rodríguez, National Geographic

Every year on November 1, a petite woman with a long black ponytail and a brilliantly embroidered blouse follows a trail of mourners from a cemetery in the Guatemalan city of San Juan Comalapa to a mountaintop memorial a few miles away. There, they light candles, place flowers, and eat cookies among the concrete niches for Día de los Muertos, the day of the dead. They’ve been doing this for 16 years, since the first mass graves from Guatemala’s civil war were exhumed at this site.

Carmen Cumes believes her husband, Felipe Poyón, is among the skeletons there. Each year, she’s joined by family members of some of the 45,000 desaparecidos, those who vanished at the hands of the military during three decades of conflict. They carry their photos with them.

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A few days before Día de los Muertos, families lingered around the tombs of their loved ones and children flew kites in the cemetery of San Juan Comalapa, in Guatemala. In normal years, November 1 and 2 would be consumed by visits, eating, drinking, and singing. This year, due to COVID-19, Guatemalan authorities restricted access to cemeteries after October 30 to deter crowds.

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In San Juan Comalapa, Leonel Sotz visits the tomb of his father, Basilio Sotz Morales, who was kidnapped by the Guatemalan Army in 1982. His remains were found in 2003 and identified in 2014 through a DNA test. After a 36-year civil war, the country is still working to find more than 45,000 missing civilians.

At the memorial, mourners cover the graves with flowers, light fires around small altars, and eat and drink. With a blend of pre-Hispanic and modern rituals, the multi-day celebration of Día de los Muertos (also celebrated as Día de los Santos), is meant to reassure the spirits of the dead that they have a home to return to. The memories are somber, but the mood can be joyous, even festive.

But this year, in Guatemala and across the Spanish-speaking world, Día de los Muertos celebrations bore little resemblance to the musical parties of years past. As of October 29, more than 11 million cases of COVID-19 have been counted across Latin America and the Caribbean, and 400,000 people have died. Día de los Muertos was celebrated in eerie silence.

On Friday, in Comalapa, a few families lingered by the graves, visiting the dead and laying out flowers and offerings before authorities locked the gates for the weekend to prevent gatherings. The procession from the cemetery to the memorial was canceled. Instead, Cumes and a few family members gathered on Sunday at the hilltop, where winds whisper through the raised niches holding the unidentified bodies. She placed a yellow marigold on each of the 172 graves.

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Flowers adorn the tombs of unidentified victims of Guatemala’s conflict. On November 1, an important day for commemorating the dead, just a few families visited this memorial in San Juan Comalapa, which is normally the scene of a large event. This memorial was built on the site of mass graves holding hundreds of unidentified bodies. Two years ago, they were reinterred in burial niches as a memorial to victims of state repression.

“As relatives of victims of state repression, as survivors, this pandemic chained us, oppressed us,” she says. “What we could do—just a bit—we did.”

For months, families have been limited to small funerals or none at all. Some never saw their loved ones again after they entered the hospital. They were returned in a sealed coffin or urn. The pandemic has upended the way the dead are buried and mourned, and now, after eight months, taken the most important day of remembrance from millions of people.

Bracing for the pandemic

At the end of July, Allan Álvarez, a forensic advisor for the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), delivered a talk on how to manage the dead: what clothes to wear, what equipment to use, how to tell someone their loved one has died. But most importantly, he wanted to convey the importance of the dead for those still living.

His virtual audience of nearly 10,000 people included Guatemalan cemetery workers, firefighters, and nurses. When he launched into his presentation, the first thing he asked was: Why are the dead so important to us?

“The answer is that we are human and we need to close the circles we have,” Álvarez says now. “One of the circles that humans are going to confront some way is death. It’s part of life. And to close that circle, it is important to have rituals in your culture and religion.”

Throughout the pandemic, authorities have sought to balance the rights of the dead to be buried according to their customs, with the safety of those still living. But that wasn’t always possible. As cases spiked, restrictions on movement and the sheer number of dead meant some were buried far from their families, cremated, or simply vanished in the hospital system. In July, dozens of unidentified COVID-19 victims were buried in a designated part of the capital’s cemetery.

Elsewhere, terrible scenes were playing out: in Ecuador, dead bodies lay on the street to rot as hospitals and morgues were overwhelmed. Álvarez knew that disrespecting the dead was not just offensive but could lead to conflict. A number of countries in Latin America, including Guatemala, had initially drafted guidelines barring funerals of any size and requiring bodies to be buried immediately after death. In Guatemala, where ancient Maya tradition blends with Catholicism, cremation is rare and funerals can last for days, drawing hundreds of visitors who come to see the body.

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On November 1, a day when families would normally be celebrating Día de los Muertos in the cemetery in San Juan Comalapa, the gates are shut and the area is empty. Due to the risk of spreading COVID-19, Guatemalan authorities forbade access to the country’s cemeteries.

Álvarez lobbied to allow for some version of post-death rituals, and after consultations with ICRC and other health organizations, Guatemala allowed 10 attendees per funeral. They also set up a system of traceability—the guarantee that the person or body entering a hospital is the same one later being buried or cremated, without their identity being lost—and played liaison between overburdened hospitals and families. In the worst-case scenario, Álvarez says, hospitals are given guidelines for how to bury an unclaimed body so it may still be identifiable in the future.

His colleagues had similar success installing a structure for handling the pandemic’s dead in other countries. On a visit to Honduras in August, at the peak of the outbreak, Andrés Rodríguez Zorro, who runs the ICRC’s forensic response in North and Central America, was impressed to see authorities had set aside land for the burial of COVID victims whose families couldn’t afford to buy a grave. Each grave had a cross, a name, and flowers. A few of the crosses without names had been adopted by other mourners, who’d assigned them names, and prayed over them. “It’s a kind of beautiful human act, no? To put a name to someone who has no name.”

The old ways of mourning

Changing burial rituals was difficult in more remote parts of Latin America.

In Peru, the Ministry of Health adapted and translated health campaigns for its Indigenous populations, urging them to wear masks, regulating transport of dead bodies, and limiting the guests allowed at a funeral. But it was hard to pierce the distance and distrust. Some rituals, from cleaning and dressing the dead, to multiple-day vigils where food is served and stories are told, continued in places where health services barely reached.

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Relatives dress and prepare the body of Julia Sebastian War, a member of the Wambi tribe who died at age 102 in Imacita, Peru. According to tradition, her body was kept at home for three days as relatives from all over the region arrived to pay their respects. In remote parts of the Amazon, there are few signs that COVID-19 has affected daily life or death rituals.

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Sixteen-year-old Walter Saan is attended by nurse Gusman Kunchiku, at the health center in Chiriaco, which sits on a tributary of the Amazon River. Saan came down with symptoms resembling COVID-19 and came to the health center for a test. Many of the doctors and nurses who worked in this region were infected with the virus, leaving health clinics understaffed and under resourced.

In Chiriaco, a port town on the eastern side of the Andes, the virus arrived in April with the caminantes (the walkers), those who’d migrated years earlier to work in restaurants or shops in bigger cities and returned home once cities went into lockdown. Then, in May, members of each family traveled to their nearest bank to receive government-issued cash assistance. The virus spiked the next month.

When Adeli Kinin Tiwi’s father became sick with COVID-19 symptoms in a small village called Shushug in May, there was no medication left at the health center, not even painkillers. Nearly all of the doctors and nurses had contracted the virus or left. There was little information about how many people in the region were sick or had died. Rather than travel to the hospital, many relied on traditional medicine, a drink of ginger, lemon, and an indigenous plant called matico, which was being doled out from large pots in every neighborhood.

Tiwi’s father died not long after likely contracting the virus. “We were forgotten,” she says.

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An indigenous Awajun woman walks to the village of Wawain in the Amazon region of Peru. Many people in this region are believed to have been infected with the virus, but now, according to photographer Tomas Munitas, the leaders have decided the pandemic has run its course. “Life is back to normal,” he says.

In these small villages, local leaders would report the dead, and the government would deliver a coffin. A team of funeral workers in PPE would arrive to fumigate the home, place the body in a plastic bag, and seal the coffin. It didn’t always work. Ebher Castro, a funeral worker in Bagua, the nearest city, said that sometimes his team would prepare the bodies for burial only to hear that once they left, the dead were removed from the coffins, taken from the body bags, redressed, and displayed for a multi-day vigil. Dozens of relatives would crowd inside houses to pay their respects. One family, upon seeing the plastic bag Castro intended to put the body in, refused. Their dead relative, they said, “was not a chicken.”

A different kind of Day of the Dead

Years ago, Martha Romero pointed at a photo of herself in a red dress, brown hair styled into an updo, and said she wanted that picture included in their ofrenda, or altar, when she died. Over the summer, her whole family tested positive for COVID-19 in La Candelaría, a town on the outskirts of Mexico City, and both Martha and her husband Felipe Palma were hospitalized. He recovered; she did not. Martha died on August 19, at age 61, one of the 90,000 people who have died of the virus in Mexico.

Now, Felipe added that photo, encircled by a wreath of flowers and lights, to the ofrenda in a small structure outside their house, joining portraits of the couple’s parents and grandparents. Rows of candles, skeletons, snacks, and sodas adorned the room. “My mother is not going to come here just for some tangerines,” said her son, Enrique. “We needed to build it with all the things she liked and all the other memories she liked. If she’s going to come, she must feel like she’s loved.”

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A woman passes by a sculpture made by artist Raymundo Medina in the neighborhood of Tlahuac in Mexico City. In previous years, the whole street was decked out in artifacts, sculptures, and decorations for Día de los Muertos. This year, the three large sculptures made the streets feel emptier.

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A police officer stands guard outside the Cemetery La Loma, in Tlalnepantla de Baz, Mexico, while undertaker Joaquin Ramirez waits for a burial ceremony inside. Cemeteries are closed—some for months, some for weeks, and some just for the Day of the Dead. “People have been very thoughtful,” says photographer César Rodríguez. “I thought at the beginning there’d be more fights between police and those who want to go inside. But they are accepting it.”

On Día de Los Muertos, the family used to gather in the altar room for a party. This year, they piled the altar with chocolates and pan de muerto, a sweet bread made for the holiday, but the mood was grim. They added a hammock, which Martha loved to lay in, and a dog figurine. They placed her ashes on the altar. “We’re lucky because we have her with us,” says Felipe.

Other families in Mexico City have no place to visit their dead. Some cemeteries have been closed since the pandemic began. Others shut down for the holiday to prevent crowds from gathering. Police patrolled the perimeter of cemeteries that were harder to close off, and the usual vendors peddling pan de muerto and flowers stayed away. There was no music, laughter, or the sound of drinks being poured. A gravedigger named Victor in the cemetery of Chimlhaucán said that some people had come to the gates with flowers for their family member’s tombs, which he tried to deliver. But there were 10,000 graves, and only so much he could do.

In August, realizing the pandemic would not be over by November, Johanna Itzhel Blanco Ruiz gathered her students from the National University of Mexico in Mexico City, and proposed a digital Día de los Muertos. Blanco, a professor and event planner, proposed that students photograph their ofrendas, and ask their friends to do the same. Within two weeks, participants in 25 countries, from Germany to Japan, were building ofrendas in their homes.

All weekend, events played out across Facebook, Instagram, Zoom, and YouTube. A former student livestreamed “La Llorona,” a folk song about a weeping woman, from a boat in the canals of Mexico City. Hundreds voted in the “Catrina challenge,” to choose the most convincingly painted face of the famous Día de los Muertos icon, and played loteria, a type of bingo, virtually. There was no mention of COVID-19 on the event’s pages—Blanco preferred to keep the focus on Día de los Muertos.

In her own home, Blanco placed the ashes of her pet parrots on a small altar, alongside roses, her mother’s favorite flower, and photographs of her mother. She preferred not to go to the cemetery anyways. “I don’t think the people who pass away stay in a box,” she says. “They stay with you. When the people die, the bodies die, and if you forget them they really die. But if you remember them every day, they’ll never die.”

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Andres and Alan wait inside their truck while their family mourns their grandfather, Eduardo Martinez, who they said died in a robbery. He was buried in Mexico’s Xico-Chalco cemetery, in one of the areas set aside for pandemic victims. Photographer César Rodríguez wasn’t sure how that came to be. “The people I talked to in the COVID part of the cemetery, none of them told me that they died from COVID,” he says. “I don’t know if it’s some kind of stigma or taboo or shame.”

This story was supported in part by the International Committee of the Red Cross.
Tomás Munita is a documentary photographer focused on social and environmental issues. To see more of his work, follow him on Instagram.

César Rodríguez is a photojournalist and videographer based in Xalisco, Mexico. To see more of his work, follow him on Instagram.
Daniele Volpe is a documentary photographer based in Guatemala. To see more of his work, see his book on the “Ixil Genocide” and follow him on Instagram.