Photograph by Angel McNall Photography, Alamy
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The overlook at Lipan Point along the South Rim offers visitors an expansive view of the Grand Canyon.

Photograph by Angel McNall Photography, Alamy

A guide to Grand Canyon National Park

What to see and do when visiting the park millions of years in the making.

A version of this article originally appeared in the National Geographic book 100 Parks, 5000 Ideas.

“Leave it as it is. You cannot improve on it. The ages have been at work on it, and man can only mar it,” declared Teddy Roosevelt after a 1903 visit to the Grand Canyon. More than 100 years later, Arizona’s “Big Ditch” continues to awe visitors—not so much from sheer size, although that’s truly astounding, but from the park’s blend of colors, shapes, weather, and wildlife.

Native Americans have lived in and around the Grand Canyon for at least 12,000 years, and Spanish explorers laid eyes on the rift in the 16th century. But it wasn’t until 1869, when John Wesley Powell and his team became the first people to navigate the Colorado River through the canyon bottom, that it gained renown as a global landmark.

Grand Canyon Village

With its exhibits on the park’s natural and human history, Grand Canyon Visitor Center on the South Rim is an excellent starting point. You can leave your vehicle there and walk or take a shuttle bus to other landmarks along the South Rim. Right behind the visitor center are Mather Point and the 13-mile (20.9-km) Rim Trail to other stunning viewpoints like Yaki Point to the east and Yavapai Point to the west, where a geology museum illuminates nearly two billion years of canyon history.

Beyond Yavapai Point (1.3 miles/2.1 km) is the Village and the eclectic architecture of its historic structures, which together comprise a national historic landmark district. Many of the buildings were designed by pioneering female architect Mary Colter, including the distinctive Hopi House (1905), a homage to the indigenous architecture of the Southwest that now houses the park’s largest souvenir store and a Native American art gallery. Verkamp’s Visitor Center (1906) harbors a bookstore, information desk, and exhibits on the canyon’s pioneer history. Among other noteworthy structures are the Kolb Studio (1904) and Lookout Studio (1914), both vintage photo studios that now blend shopping and exhibit space.

The village train station (1910) is the terminus for the historic Grand Canyon Railway, a scenic passenger line that runs 64 miles (102.9 km) through the pine forest and meadows of the Coconino Plateau between the South Rim and Williams, Arizona. Passengers can ride the train as a day trip to the Grand Canyon or combine it with overnights at South Rim lodging.

The South Rim

During the slower winter months, you can drive all the way to Hermits Rest. But during the busy peak season (March 1 to November 30), Hermit Road is closed to private vehicles west of the village. That leaves hiking and the shuttle bus as the two means to explore this awesome 7-mile (11.3-km) stretch of the South Rim. “Must see” stops along the way include the Abyss with its 3,000-foot (914.4-m) vertical drop-off and Pima Point, where you can see a slice of the milk-chocolate-colored Colorado River far below. At the end of the road, Hermits Rest is a faux frontier cabin (host to a gift shop and snack bar) fashioned by Colter in 1914.

East of the main visitor center, Desert View Drive snakes 25 miles (40.2 km) along the South Rim to Desert View Watchtower near the canyon’s easternmost extreme. The shuttle bus and Rim Trail run only as far as Yaki Point; beyond that, a private vehicle is necessary to access various viewpoints along the drive. Most cars whiz past the Shoshone Point turnout because it doesn’t overlook the canyon, but the relatively easy 2.2-mile (3.5-km) trail from the parking lot to the edge is one of the least crowded along the South Rim, and the view from the end is well worth the trek.

Related: A brief history of Grand Canyon National Park Take a look at Grand Canyon National Park's first 100 years.

Grand Canyon aficionados debate which overlook along this stretch is best, from the aptly named Grandview Point to Moran Point with its view of Hance Rapids and Lipan Point, where you can gaze down on that big bend in the Colorado River. Tucked between the turnoffs is the small but interesting Tusayan Museum with exhibits on local Native American culture. Behind the museum, a short self-guided trail leads to the Tusayan Ruin, the remains of a 12th-century Puebloan village and one of 4,300 archaeological sites so far identified inside the national park.

Inspired by the Puebloan style, Colter fashioned the nearby Desert View Watchtower in 1932 as a perch for an even higher view down into the canyon. Eighty-five steps lead to an observation deck that sits more than 5,000 feet (1,524 m) above the canyon floor, past murals of ancient Native American life rendered by Hopi artist Fred Kabotie. A snack bar, store, and gas station round out Desert View’s amenities.

The North Rim

From Desert View Tower, the drive to the Grand Canyon’s North Rim is nearly 200 miles (321.87 km). But it’s a journey into a whole different world. For starters, the North Rim averages a thousand feet (304.8 m) higher than its southern counterpart. That may not seem like an awful lot, but that extra elevation makes a huge difference in climate, vegetation, and even the animals you come across. The North Rim is slightly cooler in the summer and often inaccessible during winter because of snowstorms. Tourist facilities are open only from May 15 to October 15.

Once again, the Visitor Center is a great place to start, especially if you plan on hiking the rim trails or driving the spur roads. Grand Canyon Lodge (1937) balances on the very edge of the chasm, and its back patio offers perhaps the best place in the entire park to sit, stare, and contemplate the geological wonder that spreads out before you. For an even more vertiginous view, hike the short (0.5-mile/0.8-km) trail to Bright Angel Point.

Scattered around the village are trailheads to paths including the 4.7-mile (7.5-km) Uncle Jim Loop, the 9.6-mile (15.45-km) Widforss Trail to a very secluded overlook, and the 9.8-mile (15.7-km) Ken Patrick Trail all the way over to Point Imperial, the highest point on the North Rim, with views into the canyon’s northeastern corner. You can also drive to Point Imperial via Cape Royal Road, which switchbacks up onto the Walhalla Plateau and other celebrated panoramas like Vista Encantada and Angels Window. Adventurous drivers can test their mettle on the rough, unpaved road that leads out to Sublime Point, 18 miles (28.9 km) west of the village. Four-wheel drive and high clearance are essential; a tow strap and saw (for cutting down fallen trees) are highly recommended.

The canyon

Given the absence of roads, there are only three ways to explore the Grand Canyon below the rims: hiking, mule trips, and river flat trips.

Around 40,000 people a year backpack into the canyon for overnight stays that can vary from one night to several weeks. Far more people are day hikers who venture a short distance down one of three main trails for a taste of what it’s like to stare up at the imposing canyon walls.

Whether on a multi-day trek or an hour-long hike, walkers should always check out trail and weather conditions before plunging down the path. The most timely and accurate information is available from the national park visitor centers or the Backcountry Information Center on the South Rim.

Bright Angel Trail from the South Rim is the safest and best maintained route into the canyon and includes shade structures, emergency phones, toilets, and taps for refilling water bottles. With a trailhead just west of the South Rim Village, the Bright Angel dives quickly downward via a series of switchbacks to Indian Garden (4.8 miles/7.7 km) and a suspension bridge over the Colorado River to Bright Angel Campground (9.5 miles/15.3 km) and nearby Phantom Ranch. The route more or less follows a path that Native Americans and 19th-century prospectors took into the canyon.

Although more primitive, the South Kaibab Trail is a slightly shorter path and offers better day-hike options. The total distance from trailhead to the river is 6.7 miles (10.78 km). But several stops along the way offer spectacular views for those who don’t want to trek the entire way to the canyon floor, including Ooa-Aah Point (1.8-mile/2.9-km round trip), Cedar Ridge (3-mile/4.8-km return) and Skeleton Point (6-mile/9.6-km return).

The only path into the canyon from the opposite rim is the North Kaibab Trail, a 14-mile (22.5-km) hoof down to Phantom Ranch and the river. Several trails wind through the canyon, including the rugged, multi-day Tonto Trail, which wanders 70 miles (112.65 km) from east to west below the South Rim.

Mule trips into the canyon are offered from both rims. The South Rim features day trips and multi-day pack trips with stops at Phantom Ranch; the North Rim offers only rides.

Sixteen companies own concessions from the Park Service to run float trips down the Colorado River between Lees Ferry and Diamond Creek. Four types of craft are used: paddled rafts, oared rafts, motorized rafts, and wooden dories that recall Powell’s landmark 1869 journey down the river. Trips range from three to 18 days and include riverside camping throughout. A full list of river rafts is posted at