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Where the Streets Have MLK's Name

More than 1,000 roadways worldwide honor Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., a reflection of his enduring impact across cultures.

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Dr. Martin Luther King Sarani in Kolkata, India
Renamed in 1986
A vendor sells a drink made from sattu flour on the residential road formerly called Wood Street. India’s native son Mahatma Gandhi, who led a peaceful resistance against British colonialism, was “the guiding light of our technique of nonviolent social change,” Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., said. “Nonviolence is not sterile passivity,” King noted during the 1964 speech in which he accepted the Nobel Peace Prize, “but a powerful moral force which makes for social transformation.”

This story is part of The Race Issue, a special issue of National Geographic that explores how race defines, separates, and unites us. Tell us your story with #IDefineMe.

Three weeks after Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s assassination in 1968, the city council in Mainz, Germany, named a street for the slain civil rights leader—doing in just a few days what King’s birthplace of Atlanta took eight years to do. Memphis, Tennessee, the place where King was killed, also named a city street after him—but not until more than 40 years after his death.

A new name can signal a brilliant future, as when the Old Testament’s Abram, “exalted father,” was divinely renamed Abraham, the “father of many nations.” When the name of a place is changed, it’s also a sign of power and influence—it reflects who is in charge and who has made an impression on the culture. And so in Schwerin, Germany, Dr. Martin Luther King Strasse keeps company with Anne Frank Strasse. In Saint-Martin-d’Hères, France, Rue Martin Luther King abuts Rue Rosa Lee Parks, in honor of the woman who sparked the Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott in 1955. In Port-au-Prince, Haiti, the road named for the 18th-century revolutionary Toussaint L’Ouverture segues into the street named for King.

This story helps launch a series about racial, ethnic, and religious groups and their changing roles in 21st-century life. The series runs through 2018 and will include coverage of Muslims, Latinos, Asian Americans, and Native Americans.

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Avenue Martin Luther King in Port-au-Prince, Haiti
Renamed in 1968
Vendors gather at the junction of streets named for King and for Haitian revolutionary Toussaint L’Ouverture. Other roads in the capital are named for freedom fighters, including John Brown, the American abolitionist hanged for raiding a federal arsenal in 1859; Haile Selassie, the Ethiopian ruler who fought Italian colonialists in the 1930s; and Jean-Jacques Dessalines, L’Ouverture’s lieutenant, who helped defeat the French to make Haiti the world’s first independent black republic in 1804.

Two years before his death, King’s approval rating in the United States was just 33 percent, likely a reflection of racism and many white Americans’ discomfort with his radical agenda for economic justice. With every passing decade, though, his stock climbs—even while his agenda can seem increasingly blurred. Today, 50 years after his death, some 90 percent of Americans have a favorable view of King.

At least 955 streets in the U.S. bear King’s name. Many run through lower income areas. But the stereotype of them all as bleak thoroughfares in decaying neighborhoods is overblown. A study of hundreds of such streets by University of Tennessee geographer Derek Alderman found little overall difference in business activity there and on the nation’s Main Streets.

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Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard in New York, New York
Renamed in 1984
Dancers in artist Ebony Golden's “125th and Freedom” performance proceed down the thoroughfare. Part protest and part parade, the choreographed production along what is also known as 125th Street explores migration, gentrification, and emancipation in a society that, in King’s words, puts profits over people. Harlem has long been a hub of black art, life, and culture in America.

“Once you name a street after someone like King, you better be certain that you maintain the street as a monument to him, so that if he were to come back and visit the street, he would be proud,” said Daniel D’Oca, who taught a course called “The MLK Way: Building on Black America’s Main Street” at Harvard University Graduate School of Design in 2015. The course asked students to visualize King streets that echoed his values—racially integrated, thriving and peaceful, economically stable, with commerce that meets the needs of nearby residents.

The global MLK street count is upwards of a thousand, including a number of Martin Luther King streets in Germany, the country from which he got his name.

King and his father were originally named Michael. But the elder King, also a Baptist preacher, was so taken with Protestant reformer Martin Luther during a 1934 trip to Berlin that he changed his name and that of his firstborn, then age five.

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Martin Luther King Strasse in Bonn, Germany
Renamed in 1968
As the school day ends, parents retrieve their children from Bonn International School, which educates students of 76 nationalities. In Germany, King’s nonviolent resistance strategies found fertile ground. In the late 1960s sit-ins were a common tactic of West German student protests. In the 1970s citizens protesting a nuclear plant near Hamburg sang the civil rights anthem “We Shall Overcome.” King’s widow, Coretta Scott King, spoke at a 1981 Bonn rally against nuclear weapons.

The victories of the civil rights movement made progress toward Martin Luther King, Jr.’s dream of ending state-sanctioned segregation. His death hastened Congress’s passage of the Fair Housing Act. For black Americans, the decades after King’s death brought a decline in poverty and an increase in high school graduation and homeownership rates. But the proliferation of MLK streets doesn’t signify a global commitment to end poverty.

In Memphis, the city where King was killed, poverty rates have outpaced the nation’s. A 1971 attempt to rename a city street for King failed. In 2012 the plan was resurrected by city councilman Berlin Boyd and was approved.

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Dr. M.L. King Jr. Avenue in Memphis, Tennessee
Renamed in 2012
Running within blocks of the motel where King was assassinated and past Clayborn Temple, where he began his final march, Memphis’s MLK Avenue ends alongside a machine shop slated for redevelopment.

“This is a city where his blood cries from the streets,” Boyd said. About two miles long, Dr. M.L. King Jr. Avenue is one of the last streets on which King marched. Most of its landscape is unremarkable as it lumbers along a route that includes views of the back sides of an NBA arena and a community college. On March 28, 1968, King led thousands of protesters on what was then Linden Avenue to city hall to confront the anti-union, segregationist mayor, Henry Loeb, who had refused to negotiate with striking black sanitation workers. The march turned violent. To prove he could lead a peaceful demonstration, King returned on April 3.

That night he delivered his “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop” speech. The next day he was gunned down on a motel balcony. Today Memphis is trying to honor King’s sacrifice. Last summer the city council approved payouts to the 29 surviving sanitation strikers to make up for circumstances that shorted their retirement accounts. After taxes, the men will get about a thousand dollars for each year since King’s death. But for some who are still climbing into garbage trucks, the money isn’t enough to retire on.

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Martin Luther King Street in Ermelo, South Africa
Renamed circa 2007
In a December 1964 speech, King noted that “the problem of racial injustice is not limited to any one nation.” Economic boycotts eventually would end the system that incarcerated black leader Nelson Mandela, King predicted. He was right. After years of sanctions from the U.S. and other nations, apartheid fell in 1994, but its effects linger. Central Ermelo has integrated, but this new neighborhood is more than 99 percent black.

King is often remembered for speaking of a simple goal: Black children and white children hand in hand, as if they were siblings.

The King more frequently forgotten asked for far more, demanding “a radical redistribution of political and economic power.”

“All over the globe,” King said a year before he was killed, “men are revolting against old systems of exploitation and oppression, and out of the wounds of a frail world, new systems of justice and equality are being born.”

MLK on the Map

Almost immediately after the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., cities began honoring the civil rights leader by renaming streets after him. Half a century later his name now graces boulevards and byways in hundreds of communities across the globe.

No comprehensive global index of the streets named for King exists, but there are more than a thousand entries for such eponymous streets in OpenStreetMap, the publicly maintained database where citizens around the world can add and edit road maps. This interactive pairs those records with Google Street View images, where available, to provide a glimpse of the places where King’s name and legacy have become part of the landscape.

From Africa to Europe, from dirt roads on the outskirts of São Paulo, Brazil, to ocean-side thoroughfares in the Caribbean, explore the streets that pay tribute to King below.

Current Location:

Ryan Morris and Brad Scriber, NG Staff.
SOURCES: OpenStreetMap; Google
NOTE: Map may not reflect National Geographic cartographic policy for international boundaries and/or place names.

Wendi C. Thomas is editor and publisher of the website MLK50: Justice Through Journalism. She also writes for ESPN about racial and economic justice. This global story was the first feature assignment for photographers Andrew Esiebo (based in Lagos, Nigeria), Philomène Joseph (Port-au-Prince, Haiti), Martin Roemers (Delft, Netherlands), Ian Teh (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), and Elias Williams (New York City).


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